It is rooted in Indo-European *dhe(i)l, meaning "happy, fruitful, productive, full of nourishment." Thus in theory, though not always in practice, architectural aesthetics had a theological dimension. Olga Tellegen-Couperus, A Short History of Roman Law, Routledge, 1993. "Taking the auspices" was an important part of all major official business, including inaugurations, senatorial debates, legislation, elections and war, and was held to be an ancient prerogative of Regal and patrician magistrates. This legacy is conspicuous in European cultural history in its influence on later juridical and religious vocabulary in Europe, particularly of the Western Church. The auspicia (au- = avis, "bird"; -spic-, "watch") were originally signs derived from observing the flight of birds within the templum of the sky. Claudia Quinta is described as a sanctissima femina (most virtuous woman) and Cato the Younger as a sanctus civis (a morally upright citizen). Festus, p. 274 (edition of Lindsay); Robert Turcan, Legal questions might arise about the extent to which the inheritance of property was or ought to be attached to the, Olivier de Cazanove, "Pre-Roman Italy, Before and Under the Romans," in, D. Briquel "Sur les aspects militaires du dieu ombrien Fisus Sancius" in.  Licinius Crassus took ship for Syria despite an ominous call of "Cauneas!" Balsdon, "Roman History, 58–56 B.C. Pietas, from which English "piety" derives, was the devotion that bound a person to the gods, to the Roman state, and to his family. Cognates such as Oscan fíísnú, Umbrian fesnaf-e, and Paelignian fesn indicate that the concept is shared by Italic peoples.  Livy remarked the scarcity of prodigies in his own day as a loss of communication between gods and men. Pallottino, "Doctrine and Sacred Books," p. 44.  Festus derives the word from the Greek verb kalein, "to call. Exactly when this took place depended partly on the boy’s physical maturity and partly on when his father decided it was time, , A dies natalis was a birthday ("natal day"; see also dies lustricus above) or more generally the anniversary of a founding event. flying before the person who is taking the auspices. The word has been considered as related to pons, bridge, either because of the religious meaning of the pons Sublicius and its ritual use (which has a parallel in Thebae and in its gephiarioi) or in the original IE meaning of way. Miraculum is the origin of the English word "miracle."  The noun cultus originates from the past participle of the verb colo, colere, colui, cultus, "to tend, take care of, cultivate," originally meaning "to dwell in, inhabit" and thus "to tend, cultivate land (ager); to practice agriculture," an activity fundamental to Roman identity even when Rome as a political center had become fully urbanized. Its original meaning was purifying by washing in water (Lat. , Augurium (plural auguria) is an abstract noun that pertains to the augur. An adjective of augural terminology meaning favourable.  Books on how to read lightning were one of the three main forms of Etruscan learning on the subject of divination.. " Macrobius says it is specifically a sacerdotal term and not a "poetic epithet" (poeticum ἐπίθετον).  See also piaculum and votum. Milan 1977 p. 127 citing A. Bergaigne, Lesley E. Lundeen, "In Search of the Etruscan Priestess: A Re-Examination of the. The stages of life the Roman state took note of were birth and coming of age for males, and death.  Hostiae were also classified by age: lactentes were young enough to be still taking milk, but had reached the age to be purae; bidentes had reached two years of age or had the two longer (bi-) incisor teeth (dentes) that are an indication of age. Thus Numa may be seen as carrying out a reform and a reorganisation of the sacra in accord with his own views and his education. Ius is the Latin word for justice, right, equity, fairness and all which came to be understood as the sphere of law.  Collectively, these titles would have comprised all matters of pontifical law, ritual, and cult maintenance, along with prayer formularies and temple statutes. Pallottino, "Doctrine and Sacred Books", pp. See also Sacer and Religion in ancient Rome: Sacrifice. This glossary provides explanations of concepts … The exta of bovine victims were usually stewed in a pot (olla or aula), while those of sheep or pigs were grilled on skewers. As implied but not explicitly stated by Propertius, Elegy 4.2; Daniel P. Harmon, "Religion in the Latin Elegists", Clifford Ando, "Exporting Roman Religion," in, Robert Schilling, "The Roman Religion", in, Festus s.v. Bulla: a warding token worn by children to ward off evil. , In legal and rhetorical usage, precatio was a plea or request. nefastus publicus [NP] Ops, Consus. Examples of priestly sodalitates are the Luperci, fetiales, Arval brothers and Titii; these are also called collegia, but that they were a kind of confraternity is suggested by the distinctive convivial song associated with some. Varro preserves an example, albeit textually vexed, of a formula for founding a templum. In one of the most famous uses of the word in Latin literature, the Augustan poet Horace calls Cleopatra a fatale monstrum, something deadly and outside normal human bounds. Auspices are taken by an augur. A ritual of purification which was held every five years under the jurisdiction of censors in Rome.  Pontifex in this case would be the "opener of the way" corresponding to the Vedic adharvayu, the only active and moving sacerdos in the sacrificial group who takes his title from the figurative designation of liturgy as a way.  In some cases, the state assumed the expenses even of sacra privata, if they were regarded as important to the maintenance of the Roman religious system as a whole; see sacra gentilicia following. Gaius I 130; III 114; Livy XXVII 8,4; XLI 28, 7; XXXVII 47, 8; XXIX 38, 6;XLV 15,19; Matthias Klinghardt, "Prayer Formularies for Public Recitation: Their Use and Function in Ancient Religion", The vocative is the grammatical case used only for "calling" or invoking, that is, hailing or addressing someone, Jerzy Linderski, "The Augural Law", Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.16 (1986), pp. The latter tactic required promptness, wit and skill based on discipline and learning.  Tacitus uses fanaticus to describe the troop of druids who attended on the Icenian queen Boudica. For public religious holidays, see Roman festivals. ("Beware, don't go!")'. , Literally, "to watch (for something) from the sky"; that is, to observe the templum of the sky for signs that might be interpreted as auspices.  Parties to legal proceedings and contracts bound themselves to observance by the offer of sacrifice to witnessing deities. It seems to mean variously: the "sacral investiture" of the augur; the ritual acts and actions of the augurs; augural law (ius augurale); and recorded signs whose meaning had already been established. See cinctus gabinus and ager gabinus.  Extant ancient sources on the Etrusca disciplina include Pliny the Elder, Seneca, Cicero, Johannes Lydus, Macrobius and Festus. The pontifex would thus be a member of a sacrificial college known as pomperia (Latin quinio).. , Sacellum, a diminutive from sacer ("belonging to a god"), is a shrine. For the EP, see. The pulvinar (plural pulvinaria) was a special couch used for displaying images of the gods, that they might receive offerings at ceremonies such as the lectisternium or supplicatio. A ceremony was held, where he went to the forum [an open space at the center of Roman towns, used for markets and trade] with his family and friends. An adjective first introduced to define the inviolability of the function (potestas) of the tribunes of the plebs and of other magistrates sanctioned by law leges Valeriae Horatiae in 449 BC, mentioned by Livy III 55, 1. They may have been partly annalistic, part priestly; different Roman authors refer to them as libri and commentarii (commentaries), described by Livy as incomplete "owing to the long time elapsed and the rare use of writing" and by Quintillian as unintelligibly archaic and obscure. , To create a templum, the augur aligned his zone of observation (auguraculum, a square, portable surround) with the cardinal points of heaven and earth. The origin of the Latin word coniectura suggests the process of making connections, from the verb conicio, participle coniectum (con-, "with, together", and iacio, "throw, put"). The days on which profane activities were permitted are profesti.  It could be created as temporary or permanent, depending on the lawful purpose of the inauguration. Impure sacrifice and incorrect ritual were vitia (faults, hence "vice," the English derivative); excessive devotion, fearful grovelling to deities, and the improper use or seeking of divine knowledge were superstitio; neglecting the religiones owed to the traditional gods was atheism, a charge leveled during the Empire at Jews, Christians, and Epicureans. When, under Greek influence, it became customary for augurs to face north, sinister came to indicate the ill-fated west, where light turned into darkness. Lustratio: The name of the ceremony performed on the dies lustricus. Wagenvoort thought that caerimonia derived from caerus, "dark" in the sense of "hidden", hence meaning "darknesses, secrets.  Livy says that in 363, a plague had been ravaging Rome for two years. The pontifex was a priest of the highest-ranking college. Discussion and citation of ancient sources by Steven J.  Romano-Celtic fana of this type are found also in Roman Britain. As "the most powerful", the rex sacrorum was positioned next to the gods, followed by the Flamen Dialis, then the Flamen Martialis, then the Flamen Quirinalis and lastly, the Pontifex Maximus.  As part of a flurry of religious reforms and restorations in the period from 38 BC to 17 AD, no fewer than fourteen temples had their dies natalis moved to another date, sometimes with the clear purpose of aligning them with new Imperial theology after the collapse of the Republic. 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